Chapter 1. The Ethical Challenge
The challenge
Practitioners and professionals
Providers and policy makers
Consumers, clients and advocates
The best terms to use
Some brief definitions
Professional ethics
Theory, practice and actual cases
Morals, ethics and professional ethics
Three reasons for professional ethics
Some typical ethical dilemmas concerning provision for people with disabilities
Jim at the community group.
Martin at school
Angela at the shops
Baby Charlotte in hospital
A survey of ethical theories
Three dominant ethical theories
Some other ethical theories
Distractions to be avoided
Constructing and applying a framework for professional ethics
Chapter 2. A Community Based Approach to Professional Ethics
A community based approach in a nutshell
People as members of communities
Making agreements
Caring for each other
Friends and family, workplace and world
The client as first priority
Models of professional-client relationships
Choosing the appropriate professional-client model
Boundaries to professional relationships
Boundaries of expertise
Boundaries of time
Personal boundaries, opinions and judgements
Friendship boundaries
Relations with employers
Relations with families
Relations with the wider community
Relations with the profession
Obligations of the profession
Justice – a community based approach
Some illustrations in practice
Martha is warned against making friends.
Alex allocates staff
Jack looks for a home
Harry and George getting nowhere
Features of a community based approach to ethics
Some limitations of community based approach to ethics
Inclusion and exclusion
A need for standards
Chapter Three. A Consequences Approach to Professional Ethics
A consequences approach in a nutshell
Adding consequences and principles to communitarianism.
The obvious appeal of consequences
Some dilemmas concerning consequences
Bob and Betty discuss their dreams.
Latimer House develops a restraint policy
Steven wants a cigarette
Concerns about the consequences approach, and responses to concerns
The greatest good for the greatest number
A focus on the client
A focus on the worst circumstances
The difficulty of calculating
Defining good consequences
The client as an expert
Preference Utilitarianism
Difficulties with Preference Utilitarianism
The ends do not justify the means
Act Utilitarianism and Rule Utilitarianism
Five advantages of Rule Utilitarianism
Features of a consequences approach to ethics
Some limitations of a consequences approach to ethics
Chapter 4. A Principles Approach to Professional Ethics
A Principles Based Approach in a Nutshell
Respect for Persons
Universal rules
Means to an end
The categorical imperative
Applying the concepts
The principle of respect for human rights
Formal agreements, codes and conventions
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Professional code of ethics
UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities
The capabilities approach
Five advantages of a principles approach in ethics
Combining the principles approach with the community approach
Difficulties with the principles approach
Consistency regardless of consequences
Intrinsic rights or agreed rights
Some cautions about the terms ‘principles’ and ‘rights’
Rights and responsibilities
The Utilitarian principle
Four principles in medical ethics
Some dilemmas involving a principles approach
Kathy wants to vote
Mr. and Mrs. Ellers want a (Deaf) baby
Special needs school children wearing high visibility clothing
Features of a principles approach to ethics

Chapter 5. A Code of Ethics
A Code of Ethics and Practice for Disability and Rehabilitation Professionals
Vision Statement of Disability and Rehabilitation Professionals' Association
Mission Statement of Disability and Rehabilitation Professionals' Association
Beliefs of Disability and Rehabilitation Professionals
General Principles: Overview
Principle A: Integrity and Professional Responsibility
Principle B: Respect for People's Worth, Dignity and Uniqueness
Principle C: Concern for Others' Wellbeing and Empowerment
Principle D: Community Education
Ethical and Professional Principles
Assessment and Evaluation
Advertising and Presentations
Professional Relationships
Privacy and Confidentiality
Programming, intervention / therapy and support
Supervision of students
Research and Publication
Resolving Ethical Issues
Commonwealth Legislation - Guidelines
State Legislation - Guidelines
International Statements, Treaties & Alliances – Guidelines

Chapter 6. Making Ethical Decisions
A methodical approach to an ethical issue
A strategy for making ethical decisions
A strategy for making ethical decisions – expanded
Identify the issue
Gather the facts
Consider options
Identify and prioritise the stakeholders
Identify other involved parties
Precisely draft a decision/recommendation
Examine the draft decision using a community approach
Examine the decision by calculating its consequences
Examine the decision using a principles approach
In the light of the examination, confirm the draft decision or reject it

Chapter 7. Confidentiality
The default position – all information is confidential
The power of the professions
Significance of the information
Individual sensitivities vary
Cultural sensitivities
Exceptions to confidentiality
Client consent
Other professionals
Risk to others
The Tarasoff case
Prioritising principles
Community based agreement
Boundaries of expertise
Relations with employers
Calculating consequences
Implications of the Tarasoff case for disability professionals
Legally required disclosure
Insurance and welfare
Confidentiality and its limits
Two ethical dilemmas concerning confidentiality
Neville does not know he was adopted
Students require information
Confidentiality issues in a database
Ethical nature of the national register
A community based project
Intended consequences of the project
Principles of respect and confidentiality
The ethical challenge
Meeting the ethical challenge
Opt in or opt out
The register explained
The consent form
The extent of the requested data
Ending participation

Chapter 8. Ethics in Public Policy
Ethical dimensions of public policy
The sterilisation controversy
A court case
A television documentary
The view of a Family Court Judge
The view of a disability advocate
The view of a parent
An academic article
A policy paper
Ethical analysis
The family and the state
The Consideration of rights in the sterilisation debate
A Consideration of consequences

Chapter 9. The Ethics of Identity
‘Disabled people’ or ‘people with disabilities’
The medical model
The social model
Prioritising the person
Positive badging
A Philosophical perspective
Social meaning and physical properties
Persons and relationships
Resolving the Contradiction
Summarizing the debate about terminology
Exclusion through theories of human nature
Expanding the concept of human nature
Theories of ethics and human nature
The threshold

Chapter 10. Justice
Justice in professional ethics
Social justice
Defining justice with a focus on needs
Defining justice as individual liberty
A theory of justice
Criticisms of Rawls’ theory of justice
Rethinking Rawls’ theory
Retributive justice

Chapter 11. An Ethical Society

Notes and references